War Over Silk Routes and Petro-Bourses: Would History Repeat Itself ? By K Gajendra Singh
The Khwarezmian Empire, also spelt as Chorasmia , based on the Amu Darya (Oxus) delta, south of the Aral Sea coast, an entrepot for exchange of goods between Slavic lands in the West , Muslim states in South and China in the East , began as a part of the Ghaznavid empire .Its founder, Anushtegin , a slave , was appointed governor of Khwarezm around 1077 by Sultan Malik Shah of the Seljuqs , who had replaced the Ghaznavids as the new warlords in the region. Anushtegin's descendants governed Khwarezm on behalf of the Seljuqs but , the 1141 defeat of Seljuq Sultan Sanjar by Buddhist Karakitai (Qara Khitay) confederation of northern
Following Sanjar's death in 1157, Khwarezm Shah Tekish emerged as one of the contenders for supremacy in
Muhammad II won approval in the Islamic world by freeing himself from a humiliating tributary status to an infidel power, the Karakitai. But the coup de grace to the Karakitai Empire was delivered by Gurkhan's own vassal from the east, Küchlüg Khan, a renegade Mongol. Thus, from 1211 onward Muhammad II faced another hostile opponent in
At the same time the new Mongol leader Genghis Khan had risen to power and took over
Unlike the fighting forces based on tribal levies and loyalties in trans-Oxania and in the Islamic world, Genghis Khan, himself an orphan with no clan loyalties, structured his forces mostly from detribalized warriors on the Chinese bureaucratic principle. He was free to augment his forces by reorganizing his defeated foes into tens and hundreds and put his own men in command over each of the units. ( A modern variation is Al Qaeda and its self perpetuating cells, without loyalties to states ie tribes but the Ummah)
Genghis Khan first sent a goodwill mission with gifts to Muhammad II expressing desire for trade relations. Two years alter he sent a trade caravan of 450 men , mostly Muslims with about 500 camels, laden with merchandise of gold, silver, Chinese silk, targhu stuffs, beaver-skins, sables, and other articles. The caravan was detained as spies by order of Muhamood II 's governor Inalchik in the frontier
Ibn al-Athar's account blames the Sultan who ordered the merchants to be killed, their merchandise sold to the merchants of
At the same time Muhammad II had dispatched an embassy to Genghis Khan on a spying mission without any intention of entering into commercial relations .Therefore he suspected the caravan sent by the Mongols had the same purpose.
When Genghis Khan sent 3 diplomats to Muhammad II for reparations, one was killed and the beards of the two were burnt.
Genghis Khan retaliated with a force of around 200,000 men and soon stormed
"Regardless of how one resolves the question of who really provoked the Mongol-Khorezmian war, its outcome was as predictable as the war itself was inevitable."
Muhammad's son Jalaladdin Mingburnu became the new Shah but he had to flee towards
It would appear that Jenghiz Khan had still not decided whether to establish trade relations with Khwarezm empire or conquer it. Unfortunately his hand was forced by the actions of Mahmood II and his Governor Inalchik in Otrar.
Taming of the
Things have not changed that much even now. One of the determinants of modern day economic might is the availability and control over raw materials, now a days energy resources and control over sea and land routes. Military power is used to augment economic wealth by even plain plunder .Economic power is then used to further reinforce the military muscle.
The Cold War was a competition between the two blocks, with mutual assured destruction ie military capability of destroying each other but the
History did not end with the fall of the Berlin Wall, a proposition coined by economist Francis Fukuyama ,but he has now asked for return of state controls ( but
US led Rape in
It is now crystal clear that the unilateral invasion of Iraq, insultingly dubbed 'Operation Iraqi Freedom' , a doable regime change operation, as Vice President Cheney told Prince Hasan of Jordan, apart from gaining strategic control over Iraq's hydrocarbon reserves and to strengthen control over the region with its vast energy resources , was also to maintain the U.S. dollar as the monopoly currency for the critical international oil market.
To achieve US objectives puppet governments have been installed in
Those now ruling and robbing Iraq are convicted embezzlers like Ahmed Chalabi ,CIA and MI5 agents like former Prime Minster Iyad Allawi and other exiles ,some of whom the US is realizing are now promoting in Iraq, interests of Iran ,US's current bete noire .The rulers have little idea or concern or capability in reducing the sufferings of Iraqis and are busy lining their pockets .
It is now clear that Saddam Hussein sealed his fate when he announced on September 2000 that
During 2003 - 04, information provided by former insiders in the Administration revealed that the
After the occupation of Iraq its oil sales were switched back to US dollars -- the international currency of oil sales - despite the fall in US dollars value, thus the confirming this vital fact but not so well known as rationales for 2003 the Iraq war. Saddam Hussein's sale of Iraq's oil for euros, a political move had also improved Iraq's earnings because of the euro's appreciation against the dollar. The change back to US dollars has decreased the revenues for rebuilding
The US objective was confirmed by a Financial Times article as early as June 5 ,2003 , that Iraqi oil sales would be once again denominated in U.S. dollars – not euros.
In fact on 20 August CNN , with its jingle " Be the first to know " telecast a documentary with the motive of blaming the director of US intelligence for not providing good intelligence for the decision to attack. The whole world by now knows that the decision to invade
There is so little of such news in US corporate controlled media , where 5 conglomerates control 90% of media outlets , thus undermining a pillar of democracy in
Will it be now
William Clarke wrote in Global research website on 27 October, 2004 that the Tehran government's plan for 2006 to begin competing with New York's NYMEX and London's IPE with respect to international oil trades - using a euro-denominated international oil-trading mechanism , would amount to an "offense" far greater than Saddam Hussein's conversion to the euro of Iraq's oil exports in the fall of2000 . Numerous articles have revealed Pentagon planning for operations against
Clark added that "Chris Cook, who previously worked for the IPE and now offers consultancy services to markets through Partnerships Consulting LLP in London, commented: "Post-9/11, there has also been an interest in the project from the Saudis, who weren't interested in participating before."
"Others familiar with
"…Along with several other members of OPEC, Iranian oil officials believe crude trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange and the IPE is controlled by the oil majors and big financial companies, who benefit from market volatility." This should be clear to even laymen as high prices only fatten profits of US energy multinationals and speculators, insiders into the workings of Washington.
In April 2002 , Mr. Javad Yarjani, an OPEC executive, described three pivotal events that would facilitate an OPEC transition to Euros ; (1) if and when Norway's Brent crude is re-dominated in euros , (2) if and when the U.K. adopts the euro, and (3) whether or not the euro gains parity valuation relative to the dollar, and the EU's proposed expansion plans were successful. The last two criteria have been fulfilled, with euro trading higher than dollar and the euro-based E.U. expanded from 12 to 22 countries in May 2004 .
The upcoming bourse will introduce petrodollar versus petro-euro currency hedging, and fundamentally new dynamics to the biggest market in the world - global oil and gas trades
How will the US Federal Reserve react? "Will the neoconservatives (in Bush Administration) attempt to intervene covertly and/or overtly in
There have been frequent reports that egged on by neo-cons, US is planning military options for an attack on
Consequences of another irrational operation, now against
In case of such an irrational undertaking, the Monterey Institute of International Studies in an extensive analysis of the possible consequences of a preemptive attack on
"Considering the extensive financial and national policy investment
"…An attack on Iranian nuclear facilities…could have various adverse effects on
Patrick J. Buchanan wrote on
"For the Israelis, an Iranian bomb would have the same impact as Stalin's explosion of a bomb had on us in 1949 .
Britain, France and Germany, negotiating with Iran to find a solution to the West created problem are not keen to go to the U.N. Security Council for a vote on sanctions against Iran, as such a resolution would face vetoes by Russia and China, thus dividing the UN between Russia-China-Iran on one side and the United States and its backers on the other. How many, even
And if USA attacks Iran's nuclear sites , then Michael Mazeer of the U.S. National War College explained in 'The New Republic ', Iran would lash out in retaliation. It would send "Revolutionary Guards into
"In short, a U.S. attack on Iran could lead to war across the region and interruption of the 15 million barrels of oil a day that come from the Gulf, which would drive the world economy into instant cardiac arrest. --
Following failed US policies in the region , Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Turkey and Syria , Sunni states are watching in dismay Iran emerging as a major player and bulwark against USA and the leader of the Muslims and applauded even in Asia and Africa.
As Rami Khouri concluded recently in
The world has seen hubris driven American policies, arrogance, accusations and double standards against Arab and Islamic states which
Third World War;
Paul Craig Roberts, a Fellow at the Independent Institute and former associate editor of the Wall Street Journal and a former assistant secretary of the U.S. Treasury warned recently to 'Get Ready for World War III ' and wrote that with polls showing majorities of Americans both fed up with Bush's war against Iraq and convinced that Bush's invasion of Iraq has made Americans less safe, "the White House moron proposes to start another war by attacking Iran. VP Cheney has already ordered the US Strategic Command to come up with plans to strike
"Bush, however, dismisses all facts and assurances and is willing to attack
Situated at the crossroads and itself a cradle of many great civilizations,
During the classical Greek political and social evolution in western
The Persians routinely crossed over to European Thrace and a Greek victory over the Persians in 490 BC at
On these beliefs were laid the foundations of the structure for the Roman and Byzantine empires. The Islamic Omayyed Caliphate in
The collapse of the Karakitai in Transoxiana, engineered by Muhammad II, was fraught with dangers of which the latter was probably ignorant. The Persian historian of the Mongols, Juvaini, aided by the perspective of years, put into the mouth of the dying Atsiz the injunction to his sons not to fight the Gur Khan because "he was a great wall behind which were terrible foes." The pre-vision of Atsiz may be doubted, but the prophecy, even if invented post facto, was true enough.
The collapse of secular Saddam regime like the Buddhist Karakitai has been engineered by George W. Bush . His father , President George H.W. Bush whose military chief during the 1990 war on Iraq , Gen Colin Powell demanded that clear objectives be defined ( and left having been lied to by the CIA Chief and made irrelevant by the current US Administration ), was wise enough not to demolish the Saddam Hussein's secular regime and open a Pandora's box . But he was responsible for thoughtlessly encouraging the Shias and Kurds to revolt against Saddam Hussein, who killed thousands of Iraqi army, police and bureaucrats ,Baathists and their supporters .US leaders blame Saddam Hussein for the ruthless suppression of the rebellion for which really the former are responsible. Bush Senior and the Americans then just watched the gory events.
Let not Ariel Sharon of Israel and George W. Bush behave like Otrar's Governor Inalchik and Mahmood II .
Suicide bombing is an acquired tool in Sunni's repertoire of struggle against uneven odds, but since the martyrdom of Imam Hussein, martyrdom has become a part of Shia Psyche . The Assassins originated from
(K Gajendra Singh, served as Indian Ambassador to