A Look Back at 11 September, 2001
Comments on September 11, 2001
* From Hindustan Times, New Delhi 3 October, 2001 (Oped page)
MORE BRUTAL AND RANDOM *
Culture and civilisation have not altered the barbaric nature of human beings. The more it changes the more it remains the same. And it's the big powers that are responsible for this perverse Genesis
An eye for an eye will make the whole world blind. Mahatma Gandhi.
In 1253, when French ambassador William of Rubruck arrived at the court of the
Mongol warlord at Karakorum, he was struck by the elaborate security precautions.
This was because the mighty Khan had heard that no less than 40 assassins in
various disguises from the Middle East had been sent to assassinate him.
In response, the Khan sent one of his brothers with an army to the 'land of
assassins' and ordered him to kill them. Hulegu destroyed the assassin bases in
Persia and Baybars in Syria.
Today, the situation in Washington is similar to Karakorum except that the new
millennium assassins, relying on their will to die and simple box-cutters, and with
many still at large, have created for the first time an abiding aura of terror in
American history. It was not Pearl Harbour in 1941, but it is September 11, 2001,
which has actually stunned the US.
Millions of Muslims live in France, Germany, UK and the US. Some have suffered
the backlash, which can be deadly and self-perpetuating. Jehad and crusades have
gone on since Islam's birth in the 7th century. But this jehad is universal, it includes
Hindus and others. It might end in terrible damage to human civilisation itself.
Although Europeans had heard of early assassins through crusaders and travelers,
they could put together the story only in the 19th century. Not many crusaders were
victims, the first being Conrad, King of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. Marco Polo,
who passed through Persia in 1273, mentioned the fortress in the Alamut valley
near the Caspian headquarters of a sect. Enclosed between two mountains, it was
like a paradise with gardens of beautiful flowers and fruit trees, streams of water,
honey and wine. Beautiful women sang, danced and entertained the guests. When
the Alamut Sheikh wanted an enemy to be assassinated, one of the disciples was
commissioned. He was given hashish, a 'glimpse' of the paradise, and told that he . could return to the paradise if alive, otherwise he would enter it directly.
But this was only fertile European imagination, a misconception that still persists in
the West. The only motivation was religious fervour and obedience to the Sheikh's
cause. The assassins learnt languages, the art of fighting, even posed as Sufis,
waited for years, even decades, for the opportunity to knife the target and die —
contented. The word 'assassin' perhaps originates from its abusive use in Syria,
their stronghold much later, where they were considered wild and fanatic, like
The intolerance bred by 'my god is the only god', followed by 'my true and only'
ideology like fascism, Nazism and communism have been used to butcher
hundreds of millions over the millennia, around 80 million in 20th century alone.
The followers of Buddha, Tao, Confucius, Mahavira, Shamans and Hindus never
forced their belief on others. The world now awaits the latest clash.
Ever since Darwin's theory of evolution, westerners, particularly Anglo-Saxons, put
great faith in the survival of the fittest theory. So there was colonisation in the garb
of the white man's burden, the brutal elimination of Red Indians on the American
continent, organised slavery and the dehumanisation of the blacks in Africa and the
US. One wonders if the second atomic bomb against Japan was really necessary.
Then came the napalm and chemical bombings in Vietnam.
Who established the nurseries of terrorism with billions of dollars of arms due to
which countries around Afghanistan and beyond still suffer? And who cares for the
poor Muslim masses who want to be left in peace but have to pay for the blunders
of their leaders in Iran, Afghanistan, Algeria, Palestine and Iraq?
The short-term selfish interests of big powers have brought humanity to this stage.
After the Berlin Wall fell, came globalisation, a distorted version of capitalism, to
promote narrow corporate interests of the West, with no accountability to the people
who suffer as in South-east Asia. Under this charade, hundreds of billions have
been transferred from Russia and East Europe to western banks and institutions,
reducing the people to penury. With the Goebbelisation of western media, Leftist
and other forms of dissent, are screened off. The exploited, who could earlier
sustain hopes in Leftist ideologies, now have fundamentalist ideologies to resort to.
For the US and its allies, Islamic fundamentalism has become a life and death
challenge of the new millennium. Fifty years ago, the Islamic Ummah had started
bestirring into violence a structure whose major fault lines cut a wide swathe from
Atlantic to China. It is now in full-bloom around Afghanistan and Pakistan, a
strategic centre of the Islamic world. Trained by the CIA and ISI, there are now over
100,000 jehadis all over the Islamic world, in Kashmir, Albania, Chechnya, Xinjiang
(China), Central Asia and elsewhere. They are sustained by heroin exports and
smuggling. It's crucial that leaders of all countries must forget their short-term interests . and ponder what has gone wrong with the human race, and find peaceful solutions. At
least to live and let live.
The writer is a former Indian ambassador to Turkey
Note. I had mailed my first reaction to HT soon after 11 September ,2001.
Comments on 11 September , 2002 , the first anniversary
Extracts from The decline of the American Century by K Gajendra Singh
"It is the afternoon sun that dazzles onlookers though it is past its prime. That sums up the height of US power before last September 11. If the US nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki without fear of retaliation was the acme of the American Century, then the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, symbols of economic and military might, could be termed the beginning of the end of the American Century. ---
After having thoughtlessly helped create the monster of Islamic fundamentalism, the United States has now succeeded in arousing it, ranging the might of Islamic people and their faith against itself. Earlier, the poor and the deprived could find solace and action in communist and leftist ideologies and programs, but after the dismantling of the Soviet Union, many in the Islamic world have taken to extreme religious movements.--
Throughout history, there have always been asymmetrical wars, with the only recourse of the weak to sacrifice his life against a powerful tyrant. Among Muslims, Caliph Ali's son Imam Hussein, his forces outnumbered, is revered for his sacrifice at Kerbala for his principles. Today, nations send their soldiers to die for country or corporate interests in exchange for Purple Hearts and Distinguished Service Medals.--
The American Century
The American Century began in the early 20th century when European economic and military power, with Great Britain first among equals, started declining and was transferred to the American subcontinent - from the City of London to Wall Street. World War I announced the arrival of the new guy on the block, the United States, but it was not yet numero uno. That happened in World War II, when the stamp of brutal power was heard around the world as the United States dropped two nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki at a time when no other world power had such a weapon. --
What has been described as the Cold War was almost like a simulated nuclear war, in which the two sides invested most of their economic strength. The USSR, a lesser economic power, lost the war by the end of the 1980s. Historically, however, prolonged wars between two well-matched enemies affect both adversely. It was the exhaustion caused by the prolonged wars between the Byzantine and the Sasanian empires, as well as plagues and famines, that allowed Islam, the new military power from the deserts of Arabia, so easily and quickly to carve an empire that stretched from the Atlantic to China. So after its Cold War victory, aided by a naive Mikhail Gorbachev and consolidated with the help of Boris Yeltsin and his coterie, but it became apparent very soon that the capitalist system led by the US had also started shuddering,--
Inequities of the current economic order
The current international finance architecture is founded on the US dollar as the dominant reserve currency, accounting for 68 percent of global currency reserves, up from 51 percent a decade ago. Yet in 2000, the US share of global exports ($781.1 billion out of a world total of $6.2 trillion) was only 12.3 percent and its share of global imports ($1.257 trillion out of a world total of $6.65 trillion) was 18.9 percent.
Ever since 1971, when US president Richard Nixon arbitrarily took the dollar off the gold standard ($35 per ounce) in force since the Bretton Woods Conference at the end of World War II, the dollar has become the global monetary instrument that the United States, and only the United States, can produce by fiat, despite record US current-account deficits and the US as the leading debtor nation. The US national debt as of April 4 was $6.021 trillion against a GDP of $9 trillion.--
The Bush administration's foreign policy has undermined the fragile structure of international law and conventions built up during the past three centuries, to which the United States made important contributions.--
Until 1998, the United States and its allies Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan fully supported the Taliban and supplied them funds. Unocal, which spent millions of dollars on geological surveys on a projected pipeline from Central Asia to South Asia, courted the Taliban, whose leading officials were negotiating in Texas in 1998. It was only after the maverick Taliban decided to favor an Argentine rival that John Maresca, vice president of Unocal, testifying before the US Congress, said that there would be no pipeline until the Taliban were gone and a more friendly government was established. --
Look how the energy interests are trying to rule the United States and the rest of the world. Zalmay Khalilzad, whom the Bush administration appointed as its envoy to Afghanistan after the fall of the Taliban, was a Unocal consultant, as was, according to some reports, Karzai himself. (Pushtuns call Karzai "America's Babrak Karmal", a reference to the Soviet-backed president who ruled Afghanistan from 1979-86.) It is well known that the Bush family acquired its wealth through oil; former president George Bush Sr still works with the Carlyle Group that specializes in huge oil investments abroad. His son's commerce secretary, Dale Evans, was chairman and chief executive officer of an oil company. National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice was on the board of Chevron before going to Washington. (The oil company even named a giant tanker after her, although the ship has reportedly been quietly renamed the Altair Voyager.) Dick Cheney, before becoming vice president, worked for the giant oil conglomerate Halliburton.--
Dangers from within
The danger to the US "way of life and stability" could come from within, from black American Muslims who now number 3 million to 5 million. --.
The black community and Muslims remember many historic wrongs done to them. Of the 2 million Americans in prisons, two-thirds are non-white. Many feel oppressed by the white power structure and sentencing disparities, which too often fall most harshly on minorities. Islam offers brotherhood, dignity, and a sense of pride and solidarity, especially for non-whites. But many, alienated and disfranchised, are prime targets for radical Islamists who preach a religion of violence, of overcoming oppression by jihad. Many black Americans have experienced maltreatment and dehumanization. Conversion to Islam increased after September 11, even among Hispanics.
Perhaps it is in the United States itself where its ill-informed and misinformed people need not just a regime change but a system change. Where energy and military-industry corporate interests have hijacked power from the people to pursue their narrow objectives. Where corporate chiefs enjoy coercive powers even the Communist Party chiefs in the former Soviet Union would have envied. Where blacks, Hispanics and the poor cannot freely choose a president (as in Florida, where only by not counting their votes did George Bush become the president).
After the fall of the Berlin Wall, one misses Pravda and Izvestia, not that they propounded truth (Russian pravda) but they were a check on the so-called free Western media, which were careful and comparatively honest. Now, without any restraints, the brainwashing monopoly of Western propaganda is wreaking havoc around the world, specially in the United States, whether it was the 1990-91 Gulf War, the bombing of Yugoslavia, Jammu and Kashmir, and now Iraq.
Comments on 11 September, 2003
Jihadis: Assassins by another name * Atimes 12 September, 2003
* I was not happy with the title given by the editor.
This article deals with the history of the assassins (covered earlier briefly)
September 11 and New Yorkers
According to a recent New York Times report about the impact and fears of September 11 among New Yorkers, "the simmering disquiet persists, a lengthening shadow that won't leave". It said that "most New Yorkers [ are] feeling no safer, no more convinced that the terror won't come back. The narrative of that day is older now, but the city still feels its amplitude. It is as if the populace has stalled in its march toward fully being itself again." –
There remains little confidence in the security measures meant to protect the city's infrastructure. And most New Yorkers feel that the city is unprepared for a biological or chemical attack that might contaminate the air or the water. Two years after September 11, New Yorkers feel the city remains as vulnerable as ever, the poll concluded.--
Drill in London
On September 7, British authorities with ministers present carried out in London's financial district the most elaborate and high profile anti-terrorist drill that Britain has ever seen. Designed to be as realistic as possible, it was presumed that terrorists had struck at the Bank Underground station with a substance similar to the poisonous gas Sarin. The drill was intended to test how the emergency services worked together and the effectiveness of new equipment purchased in the aftermath of September 11.
Cry wolf, wolf
In February, an exercise in London and US cities almost looked like a parody of the fable "wolf , wolf", which was organized to influence the UN Security Council vote on the report of chief weapons inspector Hans Blix. (Later he commented that the US had already decided and planned to make war on Iraq.) Passengers reaching London's Heathrow airport were surprised when they found it surrounded by tanks and armored cars full of troops. Orange alerts, the second highest, were enforced in the US and UK, with helicopters and planes covering the airspace of the two countries.
An editorial in the Arab News on February 14 commented on this as follows, "Has UK Prime Minister Tony Blair taken leave of his senses? The sight of tanks and armored patrol vehicles patrolling London's Heathrow airport suggests so. Does Blair envisage an al-Qaeda Panzer division? Washington appears equally paranoid. Batteries of anti-aircraft missiles have been set up around the city with fighter planes patrolling overhead, while Americans have been warned to stock up on water blankets and food."
[ The exaggerated fears of Al Qaeda and terrorist acts propounded by US/UK leaders and corporate media have been misused to restrict personal freedoms with Patriot Acts and other measures to control the society.]
Other measures -post September 11,2001
In September, 2002, the US announced a new National Security Strategy, asserting that it will maintain global hegemony permanently and any challenge will be blocked by force. The strategy declared that the US, alone, had the right to carry out "preventive war" - preventive, not preemptive - using military force to eliminate a perceived threat, even if invented or imagined.
There was never any credible evidence for the alleged link between Saddam and his known bitter enemy, Osama bin Laden. The invasion of Iraq has only certainly increased recruitment to al-Qaeda-like outfits, and the threat of terror to the world and in Iraq, as US forces are finding out. Meanwhile, bin Laden remains at large and the Iraqi weapons of mass destruction are still missing!( Studies have shown that as a result of illegal invasion of Iraq in 2003 and its brutal occupation, the number of terrorists and their activities have increased seven fold .In UK the intelligence expenditure on anti-terror activities was doubled) .
11 September , 2010.
Now, 9 years on, the reality has become clearer , thanks to internet, independent online websites and blogs , since 90% of US media is controlled by 5 corporate entities and BBC is UK government mouthpiece and spews spins and lies like Tony Blair.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union and fall of the Berlin well ,US led West in a mood of triumphalism as the sole Hyper power planned policies on the basis of studies like 'The Project for the New American Century, or PNAC, ' This Washington-based think tank created in 1997 recommended the establishment of a global American empire and bend the will of all nations. And with its economic clout and military force coerce the rest of the world to Washington's hegemony and a new socio-economic Pax Americana.
The PNAC's White Paper of September of 2000 entitled "Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategy, Forces and Resources for a New Century" outlines how to create the global US empire .Accordingly US America must:
* Reposition permanently based forces to Southern Europe, Southeast Asia and the Middle East;
* Modernize U.S. forces, including enhancing fighter aircraft, submarine and surface fleet capabilities;
* Develop and deploy a global missile defense system, and develop a strategic dominance of space;
* Control the "International Commons" of cyberspace;
* Increase defense spending to a minimum of 3.8 percent of gross domestic product, up from the 3 percent currently spent.
The PNAC document prescribed "Core Missions" for the US military. The armed forces should be able to "fight and decisively win multiple, simultaneous major theater wars," and to "perform the 'constabulary' duties associated with shaping the security environment in critical regions," to establish Washington's dominance for all to see.
Two events brought PNAC ideology smack into the Washington administration , the disputed election of George Bush in 2000, and the September 11,2001 attacks. 1) When Bush entered the White House , the men , also known as Neo-cons who created PNAC 's imperial dreams took over the Pentagon, the Defense Department and the White House. 2) When the twin Towers were brought down and the Pentagon was attacked, these men had their chance to turn their White Papers into US policy.
Vice President Dick Cheney was a founding member of PNAC, along with Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and Defense Policy Board chairman Richard Perle. Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz was the ideological guru of the group. Many PNAC members had spent years advocating that a nuclear war with the Soviet Union was "winnable."
Then a new group was formed , the Committee for the Liberation of Iraq, which met with National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice in order to formulate a plan to "educate" the American populace about the need for war in Iraq. CLI funneled millions of taxpayer dollars to support the Iraqi National Congress and its leaders, Ahmed Chalabi (he was sentenced in absentia by a Jordanian court in 1992 to 22 years in prison for bank fraud after the collapse of Petra Bank.) After the revolution in Iraq, his family lost properties, so he was full of vengeance .Chalabi ,a CIA and MIV asset misled willing US leaders by supplying false info and boasted that US troops will be greeted with flowers by Iraqis. He organized the toppling of the Saddam Hussein statue in Firdaus Square in Baghdad in April 2003 with the help of US military , which Western media hailed and broadcast gleefully.
The PNAC Statement of Principles was signed by Cheney, Wolfowitz and Rumsfeld, as well as by Eliot Abrams, Jeb Bush, Bush's first special envoy to Afghanistan Zalmay Khalilzad, and many others like William Kristol of the Weekly Standard, owned by Ruppert Murdoch, who also owns international media Fox News, which prostitutes the noble profession of journalism.
After September 11,2001 events ,Bush released on September 20 the "National Security Strategy of the United States of America," an ideological copy of PNAC's "Rebuilding America's Defenses" report .The increase in defense spending by Bush's proposed budget for next year $379 billion was 3.8% of GDP as suggested by PNAC.
Pre-Bush Campaign Policy agenda to remove Saddam Hussein
In his article titled "Drinking the Kool-Aid" in the July 2004 issue of Middle East Policy Council , Journal W. Patrick Lang, writes about the spring 2000 meeting by Stephen Hadley, later National-Security Adviser , briefing prominent Republican party policymakers on the national-security and
foreign-policy agenda of the future Bush administration. Hadley was one of the group of senior
campaign advisers to then Texas Governor Bush known collectively as "the Vulcans" , which also included Condi Rice Paul Wolfowitz and Richard Perle which had been assembled by George Shultz and Dick Cheney in late 1998, when Bush first launched his presidential bid. Hadley announced that the "number-one foreign-policy agenda" of a Bush administration would be Iraq and the unfinished business of removing Saddam Hussein from power. The Israel-Palestine conflict would be placed in the deep freeze. This pre-election obsession of the Vulcans with the ouster of Saddam Hussein was corroborated in Ron Suskind's book 'The Price of Loyalty', based on former U.S. Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill's notes of the meeting.
For USA the Cold War never really ended and all means were employed to push Western military arm NATO to encroach into and encircle Russian strategic space ,in spite of promises to Gorbachev and other Russian leaders .[Would Indian leadership learn from such US policies. A Deputy PM of US NATO ally Turkey told the author ,"Mr Ambassador, you cannot trust the Americans even on what they have given in writing." ] After the Fall of the Berlin Wall , in central Europe it was carried out by dismantling Yugoslavia, an Orthodox Christian Slav nation friendly to Russia. Later US franchised street revolutions succeeded in Serbia and Georgia and partially in Ukraine but failed in Belarus. When Washington tried the same in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, Uzbek ruler Islam Karimov expelled the Americans from the air base and Kyrgyzstan placed new restrictions. The eastward movement of NATO has resulted in the upgrading of Shanghai Corporation Organization which now promotes military coordination and collaboration among its members to counter NATO.
Hopes of millions of Europeans for a better world order and peace as promised by western propaganda did not fructify. The wars and conflicts in Abkhazia, Afghanistan, Bosnia, Iraq, Kosovo, Macedonia, Karabakh, former Yugoslavia, and South Ossetia , even inside Russia in Chechnya and elsewhere , showed that in the world without the stability, even armed one, sustained by the bipolar system ,there is no legally binding respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, and independence of countries. Without the basic principles, force by the West became the main arbiter in international relations. However when US tried testing Russian resolve and inspired its puppet ruler in Georgia to invade disputed south Ossetia, Moscow gave a bloody thrashing and has grabbed south Ossetia and Abkhazia in a riposte to US detaching Kosovo from Serbia and recognizing its independence. Victor Yushchenko, a US puppet in Ukraine was replaced by a pro-Russian leader Victor Yakunovich in last presidential elections .
Contrary to the self proclaimed congratulatory triumphalism of neo-liberals after the collapse of Communism and Socialism in end 1980s, celebrated from house tops by the so called philosophers, think tanks and analysts with delusions of permanent world domination of Western financiers and corporate houses based on dubious theories like 'the Clash of Civilizations' and 'the End of History ' or even claims of Washington - the New Rome with absolute control planned via the 'Project for American Century ' by arrogant and historically ignorant Straussian neo-cons, Zeo-cons and their supporters , the situation on the ground has turned out to be quite adverse.
The post 11 September era produced great wealth for some and historic inequalities (In India too). The corporate media, journalism is now called communications , barring a few stalwarts, mostly communicates the objectives and interest of the military-industry and energy complex in USA. (Indian media , mostly corporate owned remains a poor US copy. )The era has brought terrible poverty and misery to a very large segment of people around the world. The charade of globalization is a new imperial tool to extort money. Between US$ 400 to a trillion was transferred from former USSR to the West. It created seven oligarchs in Russia, six of whom happen to be Jews. Some have escaped to Israel and UK and one who tried to take over the Russian Federation Presidency is now jailed in Siberia. West advised and executed Cold Turkey implementation of so called Capitalism has resulted in deaths of an extra million in Russian Federation alone. The situation is equally bad in most former communists and socialist states in Eurasia. Literally Mafias connected to the West have taken over power.
End of History
If the fall of the Berlin Wall was proclaimed as the 'End of History' and an end of socialism and communism in Soviet Union and East Europe (since 1978, China is more of an authoritarian fascist style state), the Collapse of the Wall Street is an outcome of reckless corporate culture and greed in USA, over spending on defense and imperial over-reach, similar to the symptoms which laid low the Soviet Union twenty years ago.
In any case, economist Hyman Minsky had predicted that "Keynes's collective work amounted to a powerful argument that Capitalism was by its very nature unstable and prone to collapse. Far from trending toward some magical state of equilibrium, capitalism would inevitably do the opposite. It would lurch over a cliff,"
Soviet strongman Mikhail Gorbachev was hoodwinked into surrender in late 1980s by Ronald Reagan's Missile Defense project or Star Wars, which is nothing but a bottomless pork barrel charade to enrich the military-industry complex with little to show for its efficacy.[Obama would try to sell the unproven Missile defense system to India, which must be resisted ] Gorbachev was followed by a Boris Yeltsin, remembered for being mostly drunk or drugged. They destroyed the Soviet state, undermined its ideology and the concept of scientific socialism.
US now spends over US$ 700 billion on defense as much as the rest of the world put together with hundreds of bases around the world to cajole, threaten and illegally invade other nations. It has massive deficits, trade imbalance and a fast shrinking economy, except the financial industry based on thin air and existing only on computer screens with little to back it. The trillions of US dollars of stimulus money now sloshing around the world keep the stock markets high and lends to speculation in primary commodities.
11 September ,2001 attacks –a false flag operation!
Many people, including scientists , professional organizations of architects , engineers and others doubt the truth about 119 as brought out by Washington establishment reports .They believe it was an inside job, to provide a Pearl Harbour like pretext to bomb Afghanistan to control the region and threaten Russia and China and then Iraq for its oil as admitted subsequently by Wolfowitz and Fed Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan. Majority of Muslims around the world do not accept the US official explanation. In Europe and even in US , the number of doubters has increased .Special US covert organizations and even Israeli Mossad have been suggested to be behind the False Flag operation .
The author receives from around the world reports ,videos and films from many respected writers and others about the 11 September events as an inside job. Scientists have raised serious doubts about the way the towers collapsed .How did 200,000 tons of steel disintegrate and drop in 11 seconds? Ask thousand architects and engineers and demand from the Congress a new investigation into the destruction of the Twin Towers and Building 7 at the World Trade Center. "In order to bring down this kind of mass in such a short period of time, the material must have been artificially, exploded outwards," says Richard Gage, a San Francisco architect and founder of the nonprofit Architects & Engineers for 9/11 Truth. How building 7, a 47-story skyscraper, which was not hit by an aircraft, yet came down in "pure free-fall acceleration." There is also evidence of "advanced explosive nano-thermitic composite material found in the World Trade Center dust.A large number of people are also not satisfied with the 9/11 Commission report which admitted that the agencies missed 10 opportunities (really) to detect and disrupt the al-Qaida conspiracy before the 2001 attacks on New York and Washington
The delay and absence of counter action by the relevant US agencies can be explained by the inertia and sudden unexpectedness .I have argued that the jokers who so mis-planned and mis-implemented 'Operation Iraqi Freedom' clumsily and stupidly could not have organized the 11 September operation. My assessment has been that insiders in US knew about the planning of the events by Arab and Muslim groups and like Pearl Harbour allowed it to happen to arouse anger and fear at home .But slowly I am also coming round to the view of the doubters about official investigations and the reports.
K.Gajendra Singh ,11 September,2010
K Gajendra Singh, Indian ambassador (retired), served as ambassador to Turkey and Azerbaijan from August 1992 to April 1996. Prior to that, he served terms as ambassador to Jordan, Romania and Senegal. He is currently chairman of the Foundation for Indo-Turkic Studies. Copy right with the author http://tarafits.blogspot.com/