Monday, July 2, 2012

Timbuktu Makes World Media Headlines & 1979 Visit

Timbuktu** Strife Makes World Media Headlines

 & A visit to Timbuktu by the author in 1979 at the end



Nearly two decades ago when I sent my zeroxed  Travelogue to Timbuktu (published only after my retirement by Turkish Daily News -1996 and Asian Age -2000) to well travelled S. Khuswant Singh , he responded that he thought it was a verbal expression only .Sam Petroda , later head of India's National Knowledge Commission was happy to learn something new .


Now following the creative destruction in Libya as Americans describe the mayhem there, arms and Salafi and Wahabi and other extreme forms of ideologies of Islam have crossed over to its southern neighbors including Mali, where in Timbuktu is located, making it a media household name.


I had traveled to Timbuktu* in November , 1979 , soon after presenting my letters of credence to president Mousa Taraore of Mali to which I was concurrently accredited from Dakar (Senegal)


I believe I was the first Indian official to visit Timbuktu after Major Gordon Laing of West India Regiment, who did reach Timbuktu by the Saharan route from Libya in 1826, but was murdered on the city's outskirts while trying to return. .My successors, to the best of my knowledge could not go to Timbuktu in the 20th century, because of rebellion by Sahara's desert inhabitants, the blue veiled Tuaregs.


** Timbuktu the most distant place imaginable ;the Oxford English Dictionary


My Travelogue to Timbuktu is at the end.


An extract below on Timbuktu and Dr A Q Khan of Pakistan from my article.


Emerging Strategic Nuclear Environment: Iran & North Korea (first published on 29 May, 2005)


While posted at Dakar in Senegal in West Africa ,I commenced in October 1980 the first leg of my travelathon crisscrossing continents on an Air Algeri flight which after a brief halt at Nouakchott , Mauritania , zigzagged East to Niamey, Niger's throbbing capital (thanks to uranium). Looking down from the plane, the journey across Sahara, crossing river Niger, over Timbuktu and GAO was fascinatingly dull. I wondered if all these little known places and Bamako (Mali), N'djamena (Chad) and Bangui (Central African Republic) might become household words like Kuwait, Abu Dhabi and Dubai, once the reportedly buried uranium wealth underneath were mined to fuel energy needs of last decade of this century and early 2lst century.


But in spite of wake up calls in 1970s of hydrocarbon energy shortage, the corporate interests in oil and gas, which is so profitable, did little to develop nuclear or other means of energy. So Niger has become notorious for its uranium mines for weapons use, and sometimes for its famines. President George W.Bush used alleged attempts by Saddam Hussein, proved concocted, to get uranium from Niger for weapons, as one of the causes belli to invade Iraq.


However, it was the Bhopal ( India) born Pakistan national and German trained metallurgist and nuclear scientist and a globaliser in nuclear weapons technology ,Dr. Abdul Qadir Khan, who last year brought into world focus, Timbuktu ,which even the much traveled Indian journalist Khuswant Singh thought was a only a verbal expression , when I told him about it. For in November 1979 after presenting my letters of credence in Bamako, saying now or never, I undertook a journey by road and by boat on river Niger, to sample some romance of the earlier travelers, to the famous Eldorado, where during medieval centuries a pound of salt fetched an ounce of gold, attracting traders, invaders and scholars making Timbuktu a great centre of Islamic culture and civilisation. 

Who would have ever thought in 1979 that Khan would love Timbuktu so much that he would even invest in a hotel there (It appears that Hotel La Colombe (?) has been named for his wife -shades of a minor Shah Jehan).But even Dr Watson would tell Sherlock Holmes why, so that he could travel from Pakistan to Timbuktu and back and supervise transfer of yellow cake to Pakistan and elsewhere. One can easily fly east from Timbuktu to Niger or go by road or river. He went around openly, flying around to Morocco, Mali, Chad, Sudan and every where the maker of the Islamic bomb was a welcome hero.

The media accused Khan last year when the scandal about his proliferation activities exploded, of him even using Pakistan military aircrafts to transport furniture for his Timbuktu hotel project from Pakistan.  Pray Dr Watson, what came back in empty Pakistani military aircrafts. Yellow cake, of course. Not even the gullible would believe that such top secret transfers were not known to the all powerful ISI, the Intelligence Services of Pakistan or the western intelligence services. Recently a former Dutch Prime Minister said that he was stopped from moving against Khan by USA's Central Intelligence Agency.


The Muslim world has been oppressed and exploited by the Christian West since centuries and Pakistan's pioneering role is part of the battle to face up to the western challenge, whether as an ally ( against India ) or as an opponent ( sooner or later ). But for its nuclear arsenal, USA after 119 would have come down on Pakistan even more heavily. So Iran has only taken the Pakistan ignited torch to share its nuclear capability for peaceful uses with Muslim and other nations as part of millennia old Jihad versus Crusade. If non-Muslim third world nations too join in this struggle then it would also become a North vs. South struggle and confrontation .---

Timbuktu's Sidi Yahia mosque 'attacked by Mali militants'

Sidi Yahia mosque (file photo)The door in the Sidi Yahia mosque which was broken leads to the tomb of saints

Continue reading the main story

Mali's coup crisis

·        'The Afghanistan of West Africa'

·        Life in Timbuktu under Islamist rule

·        Fleeing ethnic attacks

·        Mali crisis: Who's who?

Islamist militants in Mali have attacked one of the most famous mosques in the historic city of Timbuktu, residents say.

Armed men broke down the door of the 15th-Century Sidi Yahia mosque, a resident told the BBC.

The Ansar Dine group, which is said to have links to al-Qaeda, seized control of the city earlier this year.

It has already destroyed several of the city's shrines, saying they contravene its strict interpretation of Islam.

Ansar Dine spokesman Sanda Ould Bamana told the BBC that his movement had now completed nearly 90% of its objective to destroy all mausoleums that are not in line with Islamic law.

He said Sharia did not allow the building of tombs bigger than 15cm (6 inches) above the ground.

The site of Sidi Yahia is one the three great mosques of Timbuktu, according to the UN cultural agency, Unesco.

The door which has been smashed had been left sealed as it led to the sacred tomb of saints.

The AFP news agency reports that some witnesses started crying when they saw the damage.

Who, What, Why: Why do we know Timbuktu?

Mosque in Timbuktu

Continue reading the main story

Rebels in Mali have taken the historic city of Timbuktu, a place that has become shorthand in English for anywhere far away. How did this metaphor come about?

"Omg! Just found out Timbuktu is a real place!"

The news that the city of Timbuktu has been seized by ethnic Tuaregs has had some tweeters scratching their heads, unaware up to now that it even existed.

While some people will be familiar with the Tuareg people, almost everyone will recognise the place name Timbuktu, even if they think it's mythical.

Once spelt as Timbuctoo, the city in northern Mali has come to represent a place far away, at the end of the world.

The answer

It has been, and still is, relatively inaccessible

Its immense wealth in the Middle Ages made it famous

But for hundreds of years it remained out of reach to European explorers

The word itself sounds very exotic to native English speakers

As the Oxford English Dictionary puts it, "the most distant place imaginable".

Its first documented use in this sense is dated to 1863, when the English writer Lady Duff-Gordon drew a contrast with the familiarity of Cairo.

In one of her Letters from Egypt, while in the Egyptian capital, she wrote:

It is growing dreadfully Cockney here. I must go to Timbuctoo.

Writers as diverse as DH Lawrence, Agatha Christie and Mr Men creator Roger Hargreaves further strengthened this association by references in their books.

Map locator

In one of his final works, Nettles, in 1930, Lawrence wrote:

And the world it didn't give a hoot

If his blood was British or Timbuctoot.

Phrases that develop this idea include "from here to Timbuktu" when describing a very long journey, or "from Timbuktu to Kalamazoo" (a city in Michigan, US).

So why Timbuktu?

Continue reading the main story

Timbuktu, then and now

Mary HarperBBC News

Located on the southern edge of the Sahara, and just north of the River Niger, Timbuktu is nearly 1,000 years old. Famous writers have contributed to its mythical status. The Moorish author, Leo Africanus, described how the king of Timbuktu was so rich that some of his golden objects weighed hundreds of kilos.

The town made its fortune through trade, where salt brought in from the Sahara was worth its weight in gold. Slaves and ivory were also traded.

With its distinctive mud mosques rising from the sand, the town is a centre for Islamic scholarship. About 700,000 ancient manuscripts are held in the town's approximately 60 libraries.

But the Timbuktu of today is very different from the golden age. It is poor and parts of it are sinking under the encroaching desert sands. It has until recently attracted tourists but they have been put off by a spate of kidnappings by a group with links to al-Qaeda.

It was founded by Tuareg nomads in the 12th Century and within 200 years had become an immensely wealthy city, at the centre of important trading routes for salt and gold.

Through writers such as Leo Africanus, tales reached Europe of its immense riches, which stoked an acute curiosity on the part of European explorers.

This mystery was enhanced by its inaccessibility and many European expeditions perished, leaving it tantalisingly out of reach for centuries.

Before it was discovered by Europeans in 1830, all documented mentions of Timbuktu are about the efforts to get there, says OED revision editor Richard Shapiro.

"In 1820, people were talking about it taking 60 days from Tripoli and there were only six days without water.

"It was this legendary wealthy city, and the British hoped they could get from Africa the kind of riches Spain had got from South America."

In 1829, Alfred Tennyson described it as "mysterious" and "unfathomable" in his poem entitled Timbuctoo, and compared it to El Dorado and Atlantis.

It was not until 1830, long after the city had fallen into decline, that the first European went there and back again, Frenchman Rene Caillie.

Camels outside Timbuktu

"The Europeans came very late to Timbuktu," says Marie Rodet, lecturer at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London.

"For centuries, they tried to reach the place because it was a mythological place of trade and Islamic scholars.

"It had been described in Arab manuscripts in the Middle Ages so they knew about the history but they never reached it because the population never allowed them."

Locals regarded it as the holy city of 333 saints, she says, and Christians were the enemy, so Caillie went disguised as a Muslim. A Scot, Alexander Gordon Laing, beat him to it by four years but is thought to have been murdered before he could leave.

Even today, when the world has become a much smaller place, it remains relatively remote.

"You can get anywhere but Timbuktu is still very difficult to get to," says Richard Trillo, author of Rough Guide to West Africa. There is still no tarmac road to take travellers there.

The first time he went, he hitch-hiked from Hampshire in England in 1977, aged 21.

"We wanted to go to a place no-one else had been. Like many others, we had thought it a mythical place and when we realised it wasn't, it seemed like a good place for two guys to go on a gap year."

Continue reading the main story

'The crossroads of the world'

I've been to Timbuktu many times. It is of course the ultimate journey, reached either by crossing the great Sahara desert or coming down the great River Niger. Actually, rather than being at the end of the world as its mythology has it, Timbuktu is really the crossroads of worlds. When you reach Timbuktu you have either crossed the great Sahara desert or you have the whole thing ahead of you. It is where Saharan Africa meets sub-Saharan Africa, the desert meets the river, north Mali meets south. It is in Timbuktu that these worlds have always traded - salt, gold and knowledge.

Guy Lankester, fromhere2timbuktu


The journey was tough and took nearly six weeks, ending with a four-day boat trip on the River Niger and a truck ride supplied by a local police chief.

"Sub-Saharan Africa was so very different from the Arabic-speaking north. It felt like we had crossed an ocean, like we had skirted the edge of this huge continent. Timbuktu felt extraordinarily remote."

Trillo explains the endurance of the myth by the fact the city disappeared off the map when it fell into decline in the 17th and 18th Centuries, after the Moors deserted it and trade went elsewhere.

"For 200 years it was a city living on the sand but completely disconnected from the rest of the world and that was why it has such a mythology.

"Imagine New York suddenly under water for 200 years, and people still talking about it.

"That's when this explorer race started and everyone wanted to be the first to get to Timbuktu."

Reporting by Tom Geoghegan



Travel to Timbuctou

1. Mopti on River Niger    2. Djinguereyber -Oldest Mosque, south of Sahara

3.With the Governor of Timbuctou in front of his office 4.University of Sankhore

5 River Niger from the boat on way 6. Street in Timbuctou

7 &8 Houses in which Major Gordon Laing of West IndiaRegiment, and Frenchman Rene Caille,

stayed and street scenes

It has been used by Turkish Daily News, Ankara in 1996 and Asian Age, New Delhi, 2002


                                                                FOR PRIVATE CIRCULATION ONLY TILL FIRST PUBLISHED




S.S. Timbaktou

Mopti November 8, 1979.


So, finally I am on my way to Timbaktou. Aboard a German­ built river vessel - aptly named Timbaktou. Only wish had done it 160 years ago. Things could not have been all that bad then. This is supposed to be a luxury cabin, but the Grundig all-world receiver doesn't function, the frig is too small, the cool blast from the air conditioner could have been colder. And since the boat is anchored, nothing is functioning now. But I am not complaining. The life of an explorer is, after all, hard. I begin the last phase of my hard journey at 2000 hrs. Everyone on board has been warned in advance about the VIP explorer. So I lose the aura of mystery and charm of anonymity.


I left Bamako on 6th morning for a two-hour drive to Segu, an important industrial centre. There was little traffic and the road running parallel to river Niger was excellent. The topography reminded me of North M.P. region  bordering U.P, dry shrubby interspersed with some mango trees. An ideal climate for grapes and citrus cultivation. Saw only millet being cultivated sporadically. The water potential of river Niger for irrigation is immense. As it flows mostly through flat lands, with small barrages or irrigation pumps, agriculture could bloom which could easily make Mali not only self-sufficient but an exporter of agricultural products. In contrast, the Egyptians have exploited every drop of water from Abu Simbel to Alexandria or for that matter the Iraqis, the waters of Euphrates and Tigris. Lack of population pressure, perhaps explains the scanty utilization of Niger's water. (So would have concluded Professor Arnold Toynbee).


Segu is a small and dusty town with dry land architecture of a medium-sized district town in Rajasthan, barring the absence of milling and jostling crowds, which only Indian towns have. Called on the Governor, a rather taciturn and humourless bureaucrat one often comes across in India. I made my call as businesslike and brief as possible and left with an escort, a Police Inspector, to visit the State-run textile factory, built by the Chinese. The machinery is sturdy and not too modern and seems to be well run by the Malian technicians. There are supposed to be still 50 Chinois, although I espied only one. No more loitering around than in any Indian factory. Rated capacity 10 million yards per year. Didn't embarrass the Director-General, who was busy holding a conference, about capacity utilization.


Next on the menu was a sugar factory, again gifted by les Chinois, located another 60 kms. away of unsurfaced and dusty track. Crushing capacity 1000 tonnes per day. Once again not too complicated machinery, being competently run by the Malians themselves. Again saw only one Chinese, although nearly 40 still continue to be there.


The Police Inspector and the guides were full of pride at Mali's industrialization. I dutifully listened to the intricacies of spinning, weaving and dyeing, thinking of my 5 months apprenticeship at Delhi Cloth Mills in Delhi in 1957. Didn't give our own textile or sugar production figures, as the Malians would not have believed it any way. Complemented the guides, including a petite Malianne, on their industrial progress and know how. Got myself group photographed and returned to the Officers' Rest House. In the evening visited the ancestral home of Malian Ambassador (in Dakar) Guisse, established by a Faith spreading priest from Senegal in the last century. Rambling big old house with women and children milling around exactly like in an old joint family house in India. Neither the patriarch nor any one else could give the exact number of children in the family.


The Rest House was like any Circuit House in a medium Indian District, with aging mattresses, torn mosquito-nets and rattling air-conditioners. Sat out on the porch in the evening. Many Malians joined me and enjoyed my bad French and company; so I thought, till the bottle of Scotch was finished. I had a reasonably cooked meal. Complimented the cold and stern but rather good-looking Bambara Directrice of the hostel. By the time she had thawed, was too tired and went to sleep like a log. In the morning again visited Malian Ambassador's ancestral home. Had group photographs, for which the women turned out in all their festive finery. Left for Mopti, elated by the goodwill created.


 The over 400 kms. drive between Segu and Mopti was no different except for the length of distance and time & for a few desiccated hilly outcroppings. The road was reasonably good. Reached Mopti around 1.30 P.M. Called on the Governor, who had received the message of my visit and was patiently waiting, A friend of the Malian Ambassador Guisse, I handed over his letter. A Military Officer till the coup 11 years ago, the Governor has successfully turned himself into a civilian administrator. But still believes in the authority imparted by the uniform of the Commandant (Lt. Colonel). Mischievous mention of my NDC course made his military training to almost bring him to attention and made him even more polite. Discussed possibilities of cooperation between India and Mali. Found him rather knowledgeable about India till I realised that none of us had had lunch, He went to his adjoining bungalow on the Niger and I to my expanding Motel in Sevare 12 kms. away.


Mopti is an ancient trading centre, surrounded by the overflow of the confluence of river Beni and Niger and marshes. Les Chinoises are present here also, teaching intensive rice cultivation. So are the Americans with their Peace Corps volunteers. There were the usual bureaucratic boards proclaiming new projects, in case one did not notice the new methods of cultivation. In the evening, the Governor provided his Technical Counsellor as my escort. He was like our BDO, who can reel out statistics by yards. Took a few photographs (as proof of my visit) of the town with traditional ochre coloured banco houses and the 60-year old mosque. Visited a centre for fisheries, small atelier for construction of perouques ­traditional narrow long boats. Returned to the Motel after being suitably illuminated on the historic and commercial importance of Mopti.


 Next morning, after bath and breakfast, left a gift of silver cuff links and a Panipat table napkins set for the Governor. Bought a patterned woolen blanket for 5000 Malian Francs (Rs. 95). I am now waiting without an AC or even a fan in my cabin for the boat to depart. Still another three-and-a-half hours to kill. Shall try to concentrate on 'Black Holes' in the universe and 'Love and Addiction', the latter a typical American best seller, which reduces love to a profit loss relationship. Sickening and pitiable.


November 9, 1979 2200 hrs.


The boat has stopped at a largish village called Dire, where under the flash lights of the boat, a thriving market between the local population and the boat travellers has sprung up. There is much haggling and shouting. The local people wear pleasing and exotic local designs mixed up with imported designs, mostly stripes. The big boat's arrival (only for 4 months during Niger's flooding) is apparently a great occasion for the villagers, for which everyone seems to be festivally dressed up. Nevertheless, such a market has flourished here for centuries. Went down with a plain looking Canadian social worker from Bamako and her rather vivacious mother. Ate peanuts and returned through the milling crowds. Understand there is an experimental solar pump working nearby.


 Tomorrow morning, will arrive at Timbaktou's port of Kabara, 12 kms. from the town. Have so neatly organised the expedition that there should be no slip now. I had purposely joined the Malian table in the boat's dining room. All of them are very solicitous and hospitable. The ship has about 12 French and other non-descript European travelers. Struck acquaintance with some. Found them disappointing, complaining about lack of maintenance of the boat and over-crowding; afraid that the boat might sink. Enquired if they know swimming, adding I did not. Sarcasm went flat.


The boat, especially the crowded lower decks, is a world of its own, with people cooking and eating even on the top deck and the corridors. Not that I expected Maxim or Tour d'Argent standard, but the cuisine could have been better. The ship and its services are totally Malianized. Adequate and austere. No frills. That is the hardy lot of our explorer in the tradition of Mongo Park and Livingston. Shall recommend that tins and spices be carried by my successor explorers.


The boat journey has been tranquil - no rolling or heaving. More or less uniform scenery with mud huts and Savannah land flora. Occasionally sand dunes encroach right up to the river. Took some photographs. Hope they are printable. Noticed a curious thing at one stop called Tonka. Old portable steam engines with boiler shells lying around. Of 50/60 year old vintage. Must investigate. Possibly an unsuccessful attempt at industrialization? Once again no serious attempt at sedentary cultivation. With various international funds and Arab organi­zations flush with surplus money, ideal place for a Punjabi farmer-entrepreneur. Have packed up and wrapped up a Moradabadi vase etc. for the Governor of Timbaktou. This, along with Ambassador Guisse's letter should make things easier. I hope that the uncertain flight on Sunday morning to Bamako takes off. Four days out of nowhere, even in a well-known place like Timbaktou might be too much. Keeping my fingers crossed. Took another two tablets of quinine. No point in getting down with malaria, if it can be avoided.


Timbaktou November 10, 1979.


So, I have reached Timbaktou. Disappointed. No. Was prepared, having gone through illustrated books on the ancient Eldorado. The mystery and the attraction was for the Euro-peans, which the Berbers (North Africans) ferociously guarded it as an endless source of slaves and for exchange of one ounce of gold dust for a pound of salt in normal times and par exchange in times of scarcity. The Berbers and the Arabs knew Timbaktou, had spread Islam and converted the Pagan rulers to the faith, in fact, making Timbaktou one of the greatest centres of Islamic learning.


Very little now remains of the past glory. From a peak population of over 100,000 it has now dwindled down to barely 20,000. Only two years ago made into a region ruled by a Governor (something like India's pre-independent district). Located 12 kms. away from Niger, on the edge of the Sahara desert, extending from North Africa to its outskirts, where at the modest hotel I have been lodged into. The streets are sandy, reminding one of the Loharu or some such town at the edge of the desert in India, before Bansilal's dynamism got the roads paved and agriculture-based affluence changed mud huts into brick houses.


As the Protocol's telegram had not reached the Governor ,not surprising, arrived at the Governorate from the non-descript river port of Kabara. The Governor was extremely pleasant and helpful. Been on civilian duty for a year only. During training in USSR made friends with Indian officers. Straightaway arranged my flight back to Bamako next day, much to my relief. Arranged the sight-seeing with the Department of Tourism and sent his Information Officer Toure as an additional escort. The Governor was delighted with the Moradabadi vase. (The UP handicrafts can pitch its export sales on the slogan cf 'Our handicrafts reach Timbaktou'). Straightaway started the tour of the old city starting with the growing library of Ahmad Baba, a great historian and religious scholar who, out of hundreds kidnapped by the Moroccans in the l6th century and taken to Marakesh was the only one to survive and return to Timbaktou.


The library is a fitting tribute to the Baba, whose library in l6th century boasted of several thousands of volumes, when most European scholars could count their collections in tens. So far it has retrieved nearly 1500 volumes, including one as old as 1292, found in a Bedouin tent. I have photographed it for posterity. The library also boasts of an excellent collection of currently published books on Islam, and history of Timbaktou and the region. Noted down names of books which interested me. Could easily spend weeks going through these volumes. However, the real ancient heritage in the form of books and writings is jealously guarded by the old established families of Timbaktou. Thousands of these works were carted away by the Moroccans and hundreds are in Paris. The owners here are highly reluctant to expose them to the visitors. One of them, my friend Toure informed me, had a hall full of them stacked upto the ceiling.


Also visited the oldest Djinguereyber mosque south of Sahara ,built in the l4th century. It was designed by Es Saheli, an architect of Spanish origin with its typical architecture of stone and banco, reinforced with palmyra logs, with its crenellated walls and conical towers. The ostrich egg at the top represents the moon, symbolising perennial light in the land of Islam (Daru-Islam). The palmyra logs apart from enhancing the esthetic beauty, provide scaffolding for the annual repairs after the rains. The third oldest mosque used to be the University of Sankore, a flourishing centre of learning from l4th century onwards.( Leo Africanus refers in his chronicles to 20,000 students and 130 Koranic schools in Timbaktou.)


 Also visited the plaqued houses, where the first-ever Europeans to come to Timbaktou had stayed. Major Gordon Laing of West India Regiment, who did reach Timbaktou by the Saharan route from Libya in 1826, was murdered on the city's outskirts while trying to return. Barring converted Europeans and renegades, who formed part of the Moroccan armies, Rene Caille, disguised as an Arab, was the first European to go back alive next year, after visiting Timbaktou by the Saharan route, but on reaching Fez, had to hide in the French Consul's house, till safe passage could be arranged. Such was the hostility of the Berbers and Arabs against European attempts to trace the Eldorado. The name of Timbaktou derives from , the place of old woman (tin) who used to guard the water well (baktoo) for the caravans coming and going across the Sahara. Only a touristic board now indicates that hallowed spot. All places of historic importance have been duly photographed for posterity and as a proof against detractors (of my visit).


Let me now digress a little on the history of the region, with the middle reaches of river Niger as its artery. From Bamako to Gao, 1400 kilometres of the navigable waterway has assured, from ancient days, movement of people, merchandise and ideas. At the fringe of the Savannah land in West Africa, easily accessible to tropical forests in the south, its strategic location at the edge of the formidable but camel navigable Sahara extending upto Mediterranean and thence to Europe gave birth to flourishing trading centres like Djenne, Gao  and Timbaktou. With affluence followed arts, culture, conquerors, adventurers, religious crusaders and thinkers, making Mali a cross-road of civilizations. The earliest to establish themselves in the area was the Empire of Ghana (no similarity with the present-day Ghana), beginning in 3rd/4th century AD, possibly founded by North African Berbers. Around 8th century, the local Sonikes took over and ruled it till overwhelmed by the crusading zeal of the puritan desert Berber (Touaregs - blue veiled men) converts, but it ended in general disruption and decay.


Once again it was the crusading zeal of newly converted Pagan Mandingo tribal rulers, which laid the foundation of the Empire of Mali in ll th  century, reaching its zenith in the l4th century, under Mansa Mousa. He dazzled the world with his riches when he performed his historic Haj in 1324. The monarch was preceded by 500 slaves, each carrying a gold stuff weighing about 20 kilograms of gold and followed by nearly 100 camels each bearing about 150 kilograms of gold for purchases, gifts and alms. His generosity along the route so depressed the price of gold that it took a generation for it to recover.


After the fall of the Mali Empire came Songhais from Gao; and Moroccans from the North , not satisfied with profits from the trade in gold and slaves, but to capture the goose itself. The first Moroccan expedition was led in 1590, by Judar Pasha, a converted Spanish eunuch with a force of 4000, equipped with artillery and fire arms (little known in the area). Nearly 3000 perished in the Sahara but the surprise and the superiority of the arms won the day. Moroccans poured in nearly 25,000 soldiers, thousands of them Europeans, converts and renegades. But the source of gold were down south and finally the Moroccan forces, in the usual fashion by inter-marriage and inter-mingling became part of the local population. The destruction caused by the Moroccan intervention and the opening out of the sea-routes to the Guinea coast in West Africa by the Europeans, led to the ultimate decline and decay of the region.


Bamako November 12,1979.


Returned back to civilization yesterday noon. It was bit of a relief. Hotel De 1'Amitiee, built by the descendants of the Pyramid builders (Egyptians) on the lines of Oberoi Intercontinental, is possibly the best maintained and run in this part, including Dakar hotels and d'Ivoire in Abidjan. On l0th evening in Timbaktou, with the Governor's tacit encouragement, my escort Toure took me to a typical only male gathering, which meets regularly on Saturdays. There were eight of them, mostly married and Government servants, dressed in typical booboos (long flowing robes which can cost upto as much as Rs. 4000 each with months of intricate hand-crafted embroidery), They were sprawled or reclining on a large duree which covered the first floor roof. Normally they discuss, gossip or listen to music.


Wish I had taken a cassette recorder to tape the haunting local music, akin to desert Tuareg music. I drank a few cups of sweetened lemon water spiced with ginger. This was the only time I drank un-bottled water during my safari and paid the penalty for it, in the tradition of Ibn-Batua ,­ not that I could have refused this part of the hospitality. As is the local tradition, ate bread (like the Egyptian or Syrian-fermented and round like thick chapatis-Indian bread) with meat curry prepared with 12 local condiments of Timbaktou. the taste and smell was absolutely delicious. In the traditional Hamitic  (North African - Berber) tradition, which has permeated down to the land of the black (Bled-As-Sudan), I was offered the choicest morsels of meat. There were no knives or forks. I generally discoursed on India, the industrial advances (doing my duty), democratic functioning and our secular set-up.


Returned on foot through sand covered unlighted streets of Timbaktou, reminding me of my own childhood walks through Indian villages in the dark. Soon after return, started feeling the repercussions of drinking unfiltered Niger water and by early morning had involuntary purgings of my stomach and felt rather fatigued, further aggravated by lack of sleep that night and the night before. The hotel had a power cut (like Delhi nowadays) and it was quite something to pack or to shave in the morning at 5 A.M). with a single candle filched from Hotel De L'Amitiee. Left three bottles of water for the Canadian social worker and her mother. This gift of water in a desert, that too bottled, for the Europeans was highly appreciated. Mr. Toure presented to me in exchange for silver cuff links I had given him, necklaces and bangles made of weeds, a typically local handicraft - highly intricate, delicate and painstaking work, though not of lasting nature.


At the Timbaktou airport bought two pairs of chappals with Timbaktou emblazoned on them. Returned to Bamako accompanied by the Governor, who had to attend a Government meeting on the usual bureaucratic tussle between powers of judiciary and the executive. The flight, inspite of the forebodings of my friend, the Alitalia Manager, Sir Richard, who had strongly advised me to avoid it, if possible, was smooth and comfortable. It was a Russian aircraft, austerely converted to seat 52 passengers. The extra attention, because few Ambassadors based in Dakar or even Bamako visited Timbaktou, by shapely Bambara Hostesses, was rather flattering.


                                                                                                                       (Gajendra Singh)



PS . This travelogue was essentially written for Tinoo and Bulbul. I hope you also enjoyed it.


@(The author has no objection to the readers reproducing parts or the complete narrative, in or out of context, or even passing it off as their own travelogue)